Articles

  1. Phytochemical Screening and GC-MS Analysis of Diospyros montana (Roxb.) root Download Article

    Bodele S.K, N.H.Shahare
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (100-107)
    • No of Downloads: 145

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    Diospyros montana (Roxb.) is one of the medicinally important plant belonging to the family Ebenaceae. It has been used by the ayurvedic practitioner in India to treat various ailments such as fever, dysuria and spermaturia. In the present study an attempt was made to investigate the phytochemical constituents present in the Diospyros montana (Roxb.) root. The preliminary phytochemical screening in different solvents extract was done by using standard methods. GC-MS analysis was performed on the methanolic root extract of Diospyros montana (Roxb.) to find out the chemical constituents. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, protein and amino acids, fixed oils and fats, saponins, sterols, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanin and anthraquinones in different solvent extracts. The GC-MS study revealed the presence of about 100 bioactive compounds. The major chemical constituents are 9-Octadecenamide, (Z)- (7.88%), ç-Sitosterol (5.57%), 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester (5.42%), Dibutyl phthalate (4.81%),Ar-tumerone (3.52%), Cyclopentasiloxane, decamethyl- (3.28%), 6-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, (Z)- (3.08%), Stigmasterol (2.80%), Heptad cane, 9-hexyl- (2.27%) and Cyclohexasiloxane, dodecamethyl- (2.25%).

  2. Assessment of patterns of use of Dry powder inhaler (DPI), pressurized Metered dose inhaler (MDI), Nebulizer, DPI with MDI, DPI with Nebulizer, MDI with Nebulizer and the combination of DPI, MDI and Nebulizer, in patients with Asthma, Chronic obstructive Download Article

    Sumaya Fatima, Dr. Mohammed Aleem Uddin Naveed, Afroz Begum, Naseha Fatima, Dr. Radha Krishna. K, Dr. Fahad Abdullah
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (108-115)
    • No of Downloads: 108

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    Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs characterized by episodic reversible airway obstruction, increased bronchial reactivity, and airway inflammation. COPD is a progressive lung disease condition that leads to chronically poor airflow, and if not treated properly, may eventually lead to premature death. Inhaled medication is the cornerstone of the pharmacological treatment of patients with asthma and COPD. Majority of patients with Asthma and COPD do not use their inhalers/ nebulizer correctly, and develop side effects with decreasing quality of life. The present study was conducted to assess the patterns of use of DPI, Pressurized MDI, nebulizer and their combinations in patients with Asthma, COPD or other pulmonary diseases. It was aimed to provide counseling to patients using inhalers and nebulizer regarding its proper use. Over a period of 4 months, 137 questionnaires were filled. Majority of patients (17.5% out of 42.7%) were aged above 60 years and were using nebulizers. Most of the techniques for the use of inhaler were not properly implemented. Before the use of inhaler, majority of the patients (36.8%) inhaled air first; during the use of inhaler, patients (58.5%) instantly pressed the canister of inhaler; and after the use of inhaler, most of the patients (59.1%) did not gargle their mouth with water. Almost all patients (94.1%) found the technique of the use of inhaler/ nebulizer to be easy and a higher number of patients (61.3%) were counseled for the proper use of inhaler/ nebulizer. 62.0% of patients did not develop side effects, where as 26.2% and 11.6% of patients respectively developed oral thrush and salivation of mouth or swollen tongue, after the use of inhaler/ nebulizer. Thus education should be provided by health care providers regarding proper use of devices so as to improve patient quality of life.

  3. Gastroprotective activity of ethanolic bark extract of prunus persica against expreimentally induced gastric ulcer in rats Download Article

    Baskaran Kaliappan, Suruthi Baskaran, Premlal Kulandairaj, Santhadevy Arumugam and Krishnaraj Selvaraj
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (116-119)
    • No of Downloads: 87

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    The aim of the study is to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of ethanolic bark extract of Prunus persica  (EBPP) against NSAID plus pylorus ligation induced gastric damage in rats. 10 to 20% of world population trust medicinal herbs for treating the diseases as they believe to have less side effects. Prunus persica is a rich source for flavonoids and various parts of the plant are used as medicinal agents in traditional medicine. Ethanobotanical survey reveals the antiulcer property of Prunus persica bark. The rats were divided into four groups as control, reference control (Misoprostol), EBPP 200 and 400mg/kg with six rats in each group. Gastric lesions were induced by oral administration of indomethacin (20 mg/kg) followed by pylorus ligation. Standard group of animals were treated with misoprostol and test group of animals were treated with EBPP at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Gastroprotective activity of extract was determined by mean Gastric volume, Ulcer index, Free acidity and Total acidity. Gastric volume, Ulcer index, Free Acidity and Total Acidity were significantly decreased by both the doses of EBPP as compared to control group. From the result it was concluded that, the ethanolic bark extract of Prunus persica showed gastroprotective activity in dose dependant manner against NSAID plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats.  

  4. A surveillance study of adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India Download Article

    Dr.Vandana Badar, Dr.Vidisha Parulekar, Dr.Priti Garate
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (120-129)
    • No of Downloads: 83

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    Introduction

    Medicines are the most common medical interventions, primarily used to relieve sufferings. But medicines themselves can prove fatal so it is rightly said that medicines are double edged weapons. Adverse reaction monitoring and reporting are very important in identifying the adverse reaction trends and ensuring drug safely.

    Aims and objectives

    To monitor and analyze the suspected adverse drug reactions reported at tertiary care teaching hospital, to characterize nature and predictability of ADRs and identify most common medicines causing ADRs

    Material and methods

    A retrospective observational study was conducted between January 2014 to June 2016. Suspected ADRs submitted to National pharmacovigilance center. Following  parameters were studied, Age group-paediatric, adult, geriatric, Gender, Groupwise, systemwise classification of ADRs, Most common medicines causing ADRs, Causalty assessment of ADRs by using WHO-UMC causality assessment scale, Assessement of preventability criteria by Schumock and Thornton scale.

    Results

    During the study period a total 1099 ADRs reported were analyzed. Male experienced a significantly higher percentage of ADRs (55.86 %).Highest percentage of ADRs was found in adult age group 31-40 yrs. All ADRs were probable. There was no any certain ADR we could find out. Maximum number of ADRs were in the age group 31-40 years i.e 377(34.30% ).Skin was the commonest organ showing highest no. of ADRs 41.87.Internal medicine was the commonest department 28.33% ADRs. Out of total antimicrobial agents causing ADRs, maximum number of ADRs were due to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. Common symptoms due to ADRs of medicines were itching 174 (15.83%), skin rash 108 (9.82%).

    Conclusion

    There is urgent need of promotion of spontaneous reporting of ADRs. More awareness needs to be created to address these issues.

  5. Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharmacological survey on Leptadenia reticulate (Wight &Arn) Download Article

    K.Jeeva Balaji, A.Tamil Selvan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (130-132)
    • No of Downloads: 74

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    Leptadeniareticulata(Robert Wight & George Arnott Walker Arnott), ethnopharmacognostical and ethno pharmacological survey was done to know its medicinal and therapeutic uses. The herb used in traditional treatment for various diseases and ailments and it showed various biological properties like antimicrobial, galactogogue, antioxidant, normoglycemic, bronchodilator, immunomodulating, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer actions. As folklore, the herb used as a stimulant and nervine tonic. Present survey, gives the latest ethno pharmacological report with therapeutic uses. The present survey gives more knowledge to the herbal researchers on the pharmacological uses of Leptadeniareticulata.

  6. Comprehensive Study on Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring and Reporting among Nurses in a Tertiary Care Hospital Download Article

    K.Jeeva Balaji, S.Safna, A.Shama Anjum, M.Suresh, A.Tamil Selvan
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (133-137)
    • No of Downloads: 66

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    Pharmacovigilance is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug related problems. Present pilot study deals with the assessment of ADR monitoring and reporting among nurses in a tertiary care hospital. The results reveal that nurses have sufficient knowledge on ADR monitoring and reporting. Regular teaching and training of the nurses on various aspects of adverse event monitoring and reporting may improve further in good clinical practices and adhere good compliances on patient health care. 

  7. Adverse drug reactions of antiepileptic agents among pediatric patients at tertiary care teaching hospital of Gujarat- a cross-sectional study Download Article

    Hirenkumar H Dave, Niyati A Trivedi
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (138-144)
    • No of Downloads: 73

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    Background and Aim

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders characterized by recurrent episodic paroxysmal involuntary clinical events associated with abnormal electrical activity from the neurons. Antiepileptic treatment in pediatric age group should be aimed to control seizures associated with the lowest possible occurrence of adverse effects, thus allowing the child to become an active member of the community. Present study was performed with an aim to evaluate the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) caused by the anti-epileptic drugs Among Pediatric Patients of tertiary care teaching hospital of Gujarat.

    Material and Methods

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted at the epilepsy clinic of Department of Paediatrics, Tertiary Care teaching hospital of Gujarat, on patients diagnosed to have epilepsy July 2014 to October 2014. Hundred Paediatric patients of either gender diagnosed to had epilepsy and taking treatment from pediatric epilepsy clinic OPD, Tertiary Care teaching hospital of Gujarat. Patient’s detailed medical history, drug reports, demographic data, type of seizures, the anti-epileptic drugs prescribed and the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported by the patients were recorded in a pre-structured data entry form.

    Results

    Out of 100. GTCS was found to be the most common (55%) form of epilepsy among pediatric patients and Carbamazepine was the most commonly prescribed (41%) AED followed by sodium valproate (38%).24 patients suffered from ADRs of antiepileptic drugs. Out of which 7 patients suffered from drowsiness and suspected drug for this ADR were clobazam, levetiracetam and carbamazepine. Six patients suffered from irritability and suspected drugs for this ADR were clobazam, carbamazepine.

    Conclusion

    Total 24 patients suffered from ADRs of antiepileptic drugs. Drowsiness was most commonly observed ADR and suspected drugs for this ADR were clobazam, levetiracetam and carbamazepine.

  8. To study the knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers on H.I.V post-exposure prophylaxis in a teritiary care hospital, Guntur Download Article

    Aravind Garapati, Bheemesh Naidu Mattam, LN Prathyusha Devarasetty
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (145-150)
    • No of Downloads: 71

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    Introduction

    Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of HIV is only way to reduce the risk of HIV after potential exposure. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding PEP of HIV among medical fraternity in KMCH.

    Objectives

    To assess the awareness on HIV-PEP

    -To study the attitude and practice of health care providers on H.I.V- PEP

    Methodology

    A prospective, semi-structured questionnaire based study of 14 questions was conducted. Knowledge was assessed by taking mean correct answers of 5 knowledge based questions and categorised as good (4≥correct answers),moderate(2-4 correct answers) and poor (<2 correct answers)Participants PGs, faculty and interns. Data collected was analysed statistically

    Results

    A total of 280 members participated in the study, 99% heard about HIV-PEP. Mean knowledge score of house surgeons, post graduates and medical faculty was found as 4, 4. 2 and 4.7(for a total of 5)Whereas mean attitude score was 4.7,4.5and 4.7( for a total of 5)and mean practice score was found as 2, 3 and 3.7( for a total of 4) respectively respectively.98% believed that health care providers were at risk of exposure to HIV. 

    Conclusions

    The knowledge & attitude of H.S, P.G & faculty is good. Practice of P.G & faculty is also good, house surgeons found to be moderate, emphasising the need to conduct awareness programs especially to house surgeons in all aspects of PEP, without restricting to drug therapy. 

  9. Observational study on prescription pattern of various antibiotics in a teaching hospital Download Article

    Dr K.Vashishta
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (151-156)
    • No of Downloads: 66

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    Introduction

    Prescription pattern monitoring studies (PPMS) are useful to assess the prescribing, dispensing and distribution of medicines. They promote appropriate use of monitored drugs, reduce the misuse of these valuable resources and also help in preventing future drug resistance.

    Aim of the study

    To study prescription pattern of various antibiotics in a teaching hospital

    Materials and Methods

    An observational study was done for a period of one year from April 2017 to March 2018 in the department of Pharmacology at Mallareddy Narayana Multispecialty Hospital, Suraram, Hyderabad, Telangana. Drug related information like number of drugs prescribed, dose, route of administration, frequency, indication, therapy duration, month of admission, the total number of drugs prescribed, total number of antibiotics prescribed were studied.

    Results

    In the present study majority of patients, 43.3% (130/300)   were among 31-40 years, followed by 16.6% (50/300) patients among 41-50 years. Male predominance (66.6%) compared to females (33.3%) was seen. On clinical diagnosis, Respiratory tract infections were the most common in  50% (150/300) cases and  antibiotics were prescribed in high percentage (21.5%), followed by viral fever (16.6%). 195(65%) prescriptions had antibiotic monotherapy, 72 (24%) prescriptions had two antibiotic drugs, 33 (11 %) prescriptions had more than 2 antibiotic drugs. Cephalosporins were commonly prescribed in 173 (49.4%) cases.

    Conclusion

    Various clinical conditions across all age groups require use of antibiotics. Respiratory tract infections are the most common indications for prescribing antibiotics. Cephalosporins and quinolones are the most commonly prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotic monotherapy is commoner than usage of multiple antibiotics. Rational use of appropriate antibiotics can obviate drug resistance in future and continuous monitoring of antibiotic usage in hospitals is recommended.

  10. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of Sida Acuta Burm Download Article

    Krishnaveni A, Ezhilarasan B, Iyappan A, Abdul Hasan Sathali A
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (157-165)
    • No of Downloads: 86

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    Sida acuta is shrub indigenous to pantropical areas, widely distributed in regions and found in pastures, waste lands, cultivated lands, roadsides, lawns and planted forests. Sida acuta is ethanomedically used as treatment of diuretic, asthma, fever, headache, cough, cold, ulcer, anthelmintic, snake bite, urinary disease, female disorders, sedative, eczema, kidney stone, elephantiasis, testicular swelling, poultice for dandruff, rheumatic affections, facial paralysis, pulmonary tuberculosis, gonorrheae. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannin, saponin, flavonoid, terpenoids, cardio glycoside, vitamin composition was thiamine, niacin, ascorbic acid, tocopherol, riboflavin and mineral composition was calcium, magnesium, zinc, steroids, phenolic compounds, sesquiterpene, alkaloid cryptolepine, quindoline, quindolinone and fixed oil. The hydro alcohol extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis and the same was evaluated for its antioxidant studies by in vitro methods such as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, reducing power assay and total antioxidant capacity. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardio glycoside, sterols, saponins, flavonoids,protein and aminoacids, terpenoids, resins, gum  mucilage, quinone and coumarin. The antioxidant studies concentration (IC50) of Sida acuta of hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect was found to be 1.83μg/mL in comparison with ascorbic acid (0.95μg/mL). Inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Sida acuta for reducing power effect is found to be 142μ/mL in comparison with ascorbic acid 15μg/mL and Inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Sida acuta for total antioxidant capacity was found to be 185μg/mL in comparison with ascorbic acid 159μg/mL. The present research draws the conclusion that this Sida acuta plant showed mild antioxidant effect, which may be due to the phytoconstituents. 

  11. Computational and molecular designing studies of novel flavonoid analogues as HMG CoA Reductase and cholesterol esterase inhibitors for their Cardioprotective effect using in Silico docking studies Download Article

    K. Asok Kumar, P. Jagannath, Francis Saleshier
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (166-177)
    • No of Downloads: 59

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    The objective of the study was to generate a series of pharmacophores from a parent flavone skeleton and evaluate their in silico HMG CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase enzyme inhibitory potential using the software AutoDock 4.2. A total of eighteen flavonoid compounds were generated from flavone structure using the software ChemSketch. The docking studies were carried out for all these compounds using the software AutoDock4.2 with the enzymes HMG CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase. The docking parameters like binding energy, inhibition constant and intermolecular energy were determined. The results obtained were compared with the standard drugs. Rosuvastatin and simvastatin were used as the standards for HMG CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity respectively. The binding sites of both enzymes for these ligands and their pharmacophores were identified. Based on the docking parameters for the enzyme HMG CoA reductase the binding energy, inhibition constant, intermolecular energy of Rosuvastatin was found to be -7.97 kcalmol-1, 1.44nm was and -11.85 kcalmol-1 respectively. The flavonoid compounds showed binding energy ranging between -11.85 to -9.09 to kcalmol-1, inhibition constant ranging from 2.06 nM to 216.45 nM intermolecular energy ranging between -13.94 kcalmol‑1 to -10.88 kcalmol‑1. Among the flavonoid compounds FA5 showed better binding energy -11.85 kcalmol-1, inhibition constant (2.06 nM) and intermolecular energy (-13.94 kcalmol‑1) when compared to the standard.The docking parameters of standard Simvastatin to cholesterol esterase exhibited a binding energy -6.72 kcalmol-1, inhibition constant (11.89 nm) and intermolecular energy -9.11 kcalmol-1. The flavonoid compounds showed binding energy ranging between -9.03 kcalmol-1 to -7.28 kcalmol-1, inhibition constant ranging from 241.43 nm to 4.71 μM, intermolecular energy ranging between -10.69 kcalmol-1 to -9.37 kcalmol-1. From the selected flavonoids FA12 had showed better binding energy (-9.03 kcal/mol), inhibition constant (241.43 nm), when compared to the standard simvastatin (-6.72 kcalmol-1). This proved that FA12 has the potential to inhibit cholesterol esterase. The compound FA2 exhibited better intermolecular energy -10.69 kcalmol1) when compared to the standard and the compound FA12. In conclusion, these results indicate that selected flavonoids, FA5 has better binding sites and interaction for the enzyme HMG CoA reductase  and FA12 have better binding sites and interactions with cholesterol esterase enzyme and can be synthesized and screened for their in vitro and in vivo potential.

  12. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of commelina benghalensis L Download Article

    A. Krishnaveni, A. Iyappan, B. Ezhilarasan, A. Abdul Hasan Sathali
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (178-185)
    • No of Downloads: 67

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    Commelina benghalensis L. commonly known as Benghal dayflower, belongs to the family Commelinaceae. Commelina benghalensis L. is a perennial herb native to tropical Asia and Africa. Valaiyans of Piranmalai hills, Tamilnadu used the leaves for the treatment of rabies and wounds  [1, 2]   The kavirajes tribals  of Bangladesh used the young leaves for external poisoning . The  litertature survey of phytochemical screening  of Commelina benghalensis L revealed the presence of tannins, phlobatannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids etc.,The hydroalcoholic extract (70%) of Commelina benghalensis L. (Leaf) was subjected to preliminary phytochemical studies and antioxidant activity. The phytochemical screening of the hydroalcoholic extract (70%) of Commelina benghalensis L. (Leaf)  revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, sterols, saponins, tannins and phenolic compound, flavonoids, protein and free aminoacid, terpenoids, mucilage, betacyanin, quinone, phlobatannins, carotenoids. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Commelina benghalensis L. (Leaf) against hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect was found to be 18 µg/mL in comparison with (ascorbic acid 7µg/mL). The inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Commelina benghalensis L. (Leaf) in reducing power assay is found to be 12 µg/mL in comparison with (ascorbic acid 9µg/mL). The total antioxidant capacity is found to be 40 µg/mL in comparison with (ascorbic acid 10 µg/mL). It showed mild to moderate anti oxidant effect when compared with ascorbic acid.

  13. Analysis of antibiotics use in hospitalised patients of a tertiary care hospital in a semi urban area Download Article

    Dr.R.Lenin M.D, Dr.G.Rajaram M.D
    • Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (186-190)
    • No of Downloads: 54

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    Background

    Irrational prescribing of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance, increased cost of therapy and serious adverse drug reactions. Our study aims at analyzing the use of antibiotics in hospitalized patients with infections in a tertiary care hospital of a semi urban area.

    Methods

    A total of 100 inpatient case records treated with antibiotics were chosen. The demographic data, disease data and the utilization of different AMAs were analyzed.

    Results

    A total of 310 prescriptions of antibiotics were noted in the study in 100 patients (i.e. – an average of 3.1antibiotics/patient). Metronidazole (21%), Cefotaxime (13%) and Gentamicin (13%) were the most common antibiotics used. Most common infections were involving genitourinary tract and respiratory system. Culture and sensitivity were done in 18 patients. Pipericillin +Tazobactum was the most common FDC prescribed in our study. 91% of patients were completely recovered from illness.

    Conclusion

    The use of combination of antibiotics should be restricted and narrowed down to specific agents. The antibiotic prescribing guidelines should be strictly followed in patient care. With appropriate and effective use of antibiotics, patient care may be improved and antibiotic resistance may be avoided.